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From the Desk of SMART LEADERS IAS

Dear Aspirants,

Our regards for you. Yet again we are introducing a new book on WORLD HISTORY. This book covers all the topics mentioned in the UPSC syllabus.

Care has been taken to compress the needed information and yet to give it in a lucid manner. This is a must read for the UPSC aspirants writing mains exam.

We request you to kindly provide your suggestions to us, so that we can improve the next subsequent editions of the book. We congratulate the Smart Leaders IAS team who have taken great care to complete the book on time.

With Regards, S.SIVARAJAVEL M.A.SADIK FOUNDER-DIRECTORS (SMART LEADERS IAS)

Table Of Content

S.NOINDEXPAGE.NO
1.RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION 
 1.1 Renaissance8
 1.1.1 Humanism8
 1.1.2 Art and Architecture9
 1.1.3 Renaissance Literature11
 1.1.4 The Invention of Printing12
 1.1.5 Beginning of Modern Science13
 1.2 Reformation15
 1.2.1 Evils of the Catholic Church16
 1.2.2 Protests against the Church17
 1.2.3 Martin Luther and Protestant Reformation17
 1.2.4 Political Factors18
 1.2.5 Spread of Protestant Reformation19
 1.2.6 Catholic Reformation20
2.AMERICA21
 2.1 The American Revolution21
 2.1.1 Ideological background of American Revolution21
 2.1.2 Larger Background of American Revolution21
 2.1.3 Declaration of Independence, 177624
 2.2 American Civil War25
3.THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1815)37
 3.1 Europe on the eve of the French Revolution37
 3.2 Why the Revolution broke out in France?38
 3.2.1 Condition of France on the eve of the French Revolution39
 3.2.2 The Summoning of the States-General and fall of the Old Regime43
 3.2.3 Work of the Constituent Assembly (1788-1791)44
 3.2.4 Early life of Napoleon48
 3.2.5 The Consulate (1799-1804)49
 3.2.6 Reforms under the Consulate49
 3.2.7 Napoleon Proclaimed as Emperor51
 3.2.8 The Continental System and Its Effects53
 3.2.9 The Spanish and the Peninsular War54
 3.2.10 Causes of French Failure54
 3.2.11 Significance of the Peninsular War55
 3.2.12 Napoleon’s Campaign against Russia55
 3.3 Causes of Napoleon’s Downfall57
 3.4 Significance of French Revolution58
 3.5 Treaty of Vienna59
4.EUROPEAN REVOLUTIONS OF THE 19TH CENTURY61
 4.1 Spanish Revolution of 182061
 4.2 The July Revolution of 183062
 4.2.1 Effects of the July Revolution on the Settlement of 181564
 4.2.2 Effect of the July Revolution on other Countries65
 4.3 The February Revolution of 184866
 4.3.1 The February Revolution of 1848 in France69
 4.3.2 Impact of the February Revolution70
5.INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION73
 5.1 Beginning of Industrial Revolution73
 5.2 Why Industrial Revolution started in England?75
 5.3 Effects of Industrial Revolution78
 5.3.1 Economic Effects78
 5.3.2 Social Effects79
 5.3.3 Political Effects80
 5.3.4 Effects of Ideology80
 5.4 Industrial Revolution in Other Countries81
 5.4.1 U.S.A.81
 5.4.2 Germany82
 5.4.3 Russia83
 5.4.4 Japan84
 5.5 Socialist Industrialization85
 5.5.1 Socialist Industrialization in Soviet Russia85
 5.5.2 Socialist Industrialization in China87
6.IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM90
 6.1 Imperialism90
 6.2 New Imperialism of Europe90
 6.3 Colonialism and Imperialism91
 6.4 Causes of the Development of New Imperialism91
 6.5 Imperialism in Africa94
 6.5.1 Slave Trade94
 6.5.2 Scramble for Africa96
 6.6 Imperialism in Latin America102
 6.7 Imperialism in South Africa104
 6.8 Imperialism in Indonesia104
 6.9 Imperialism inAustralia105
7.UNIFICATION OF ITALY107
8.UNIFICATION OF GERMANY109
9.THE FIRST WORLD WAR112
 9.1 Imperialist Rivalries112
 9.2 Conflicts within Europe113
 9.3 Formation of Alliances114
 9.4 Incidents Preceding the War115
 9.5 The Outbreak of War116
 9.6 End of the War116
 9.7 The Treaty of Versailles with Germany - 1919117
 9.8 Woodrow Wilson’s famous 14 Points (January 1918)118
 9.9 Peace Treaties119
 9.10 Consequences of the War and the Peace Treaties121
10.THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS123
 10.1 The successes of the League124
 10.2 Why did the League fail to preserve peace?124
11.RUSSIAN REVOLUTION126
 11.1 Conditions in Russia before the Revolution126
 11.2 Beginning of the Revolution129
 11.3 Consequences of the Revolution130
 11.4 Comintern131
12.PERIOD BETWEEN THE WARS133
 12.1 Italy 1918-45: the first appearance of fascism – Mussolini133
 12.1.1 Why was Mussolini able to come to power?133
 12.1.2 What did the term ‘fascism’ stand for?134
 12.1.3 What benefits did fascism bring for the Italians?136
 12.1.4 So why was Mussolini eventually overthrown?137
 12.1.5 Summary of events138
 12.2 Germany 1918-45: the Weimar Republic and Hitler139
 12.2.1 Why did the Weimar Republic collapse?139
 12.2.2 The alternative – Hitler and the Nazis140
 12.2.3 What did National Socialism stand for?141
 12.2.4 Summary of events142
 12.3 Nazism and fascism – similarities and differences143
13.AMERICA BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR144
 13.1 Into the Melting Pot – The Era of Immigration144
 13.2 The Great Depression arrives: October 1929148
 13.3 Roosevelt and the New Deal150
 13.3.1 What did the New Deal achieve?153
14.THE SECOND WORLD WAR154
 14.1 The Invasion of Poland154
 14.2 German Invasion of Soviet Union155
 14.3 Pearl Harbour: Entry of USA156
 14.4 The ‘Second Front’157
 14.5 End of the War in Europe158
 14.6 Nuclear Attack on Japan158
 14.7 The Damage Caused by the War159
15.THE FALL OF THE EUROPEAN EMPIRES162
 15.1 Decolonization162
 15.1.1 Decolonization in Latin America163
 15.1.2 Rise of Arab Nationalism164
 15.1.3 Rise of Nationalism in Africa164
 15.2 Factors Constraining Development165
 15.2.1 Latin America165
 15.2.2 Africa167
16.COLD WAR169
 16.1 Origin of Cold War170
 16.2 Interwar diplomacy (1918-1941)171
 16.3 Wartime alliance (1941-1945)172
 16.4 Post 1945 developments174
 16.4.1 The Yalta Conference (February 1945)174
 16.4.2 The Potsdam Conference (July 1945)174
 16.4.3 Communism established in Eastern Europe175
 16.4.4 Greece Civil War178
 16.5 The Truman Doctrine178
 16.6 Marshall Plan179
 16.7 The Cominform180
 16.8 Molotov plan180
 16.9 The Berlin Blockade and Airlift (June 1948-May 1949)180
 16.10 The Formation of NATO181
 16.11 Emergence of the USSR as a nuclear power182
17.CHANGE IN US POLICY(from containment to active opposition)183
 17.1 Korean War (1950-53)183
 17.2 Formation of SEATO (1954) and CENTO (1955)185
 17.3 The Vietnam War (1954-1975)185
 17.4 Conflict in the Arab World (1956)189
 17.5 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)191
 17.6 The “Second Cold War” (1979-1985)193
 17.7 End of the Cold War195
18.DISINTEGRATION OF USSR197
 18.1 History of the Soviet Union197
 18.2 The rise of Gorbachev197
 18.2.1 Reforms of Gorbachev197
 18.2.2 Consequences199
 18.3 Dissolution of the USSR201
 18.4 The August Coup202
 18.4.1 Aftermath of the failed coup203
 18.5 Formation of the CIS and official end of the USSR204
 18.6 Post-Soviet restructuring205
 18.7 Changes in Eastern-Europe after 1990-91205
19.POLITICAL CHANGES IN EASTERN EUROPE (1989-2001)207
 19.1 Changes in Poland208
 19.2 Changes in Hungary209
 19.3 Re-Unification of Germany210
 19.4 Changes in Czechoslovakia211
 19.5 Changes in Romania211
 19.6 Changes in Bulgaria212
 19.7 Changes in Albania212
 19.8 Changes in Yugoslavia213
20.COMMUNIST CHINA214
 20.1 Revolution and the Warlord Era214
 20.2 The Kuomintang, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen and Chiang Kai-Shek215
 20.3 Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party216
 20.3.1 Why did Mao and the communists gain support?217
 20.4 China after 1949219
 20.5 The Great leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution220

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