Skip to main content

Preface

Dear Aspirants,

Our greetings to you. We present you with this book “The Principles and Concepts of Geography”. This work consists of all the basic concepts associated with the Three spheres of our earth. i.e. Lithosphere, Atmosphere and Hydrosphere.

Geography as a subject emerged as our need to understand our Surroundings increased. Our Surroundings and Environment decide our life and our being. The understanding cannot be complete unless we know some basic concepts of Geography. This book gives you all those basic concepts.

Studying this book with the aid of Atlas will help you to learn Geography. The book is prepared for the aspirants, who find Geography a huddle to clear Competitive Exams. We tried to include all those topics relevant to the UPSC Exam. We request you to give your valuable suggestions for our improvement.

We take this opportunity to thank our Smart Leaders Team, Senthil Kumar, Suresh Kumar, Karthikeyan, Dhanasekar, Ravichandran, Kalaiselvi, Sumeet, Ramya, and others for their suggestions and contributions in preparing this material. We also thank our Students who provided the needs and inputs required for this material.

We wish you all the best for your success in UPSC and happiness in life.

Regards, S.SIVARAJAVEL, M.A.SADIK FOUNDER- DIRECTORS (SMARTLEADERS IAS)

Table Of Content

S. NOTOPICPAGE NO
1.UNIT-1: NATURE OF GEOGRAPHY AS A DISCIPLINE05
 1.1.Geography in daily life 
 1.2 Development of Geography 
 1.3 Scope of Geography 
 1.4 Approaches to Study the Geography 
 1.5 Geography and Society 
 1.6 Methods and Techniques of Geography 
 1.7 Branches of Geography 
 1.8 Geography as an Interdisciplinary Subjec 
2.UNIT-2: THE EARTH’S: INTERIOR, MOTION AND SURFACE DYNAMICS 
 2.1 Earth’s Interior 
 2.2 Structure of the Earth’s Interior 
 2.3 Temperature and Pressure inside the Earth 
 2.4 Density and Composition of Earth’s Interior 
 2.5 Materials of the Earth’s Crus 
 2.6 Types of Rocks 
 2.7 Great Circle 
 2.8 Motion of Earth 
 2.9 Concept of Isostasy 
 2.10 Continental Drift 
 2.11 Concept of Sea Floor Spreading 
 2.12 The concept of Paleomagnetism 
 2.13 Plate Tectonics 
3.UNIT-3: EVOLUTION OF LANDFORMS45
 3.1 Internal Forces 
 3.1.1 Earths Movements 
 3.1.2 Volcanoes 
 3.1.3 Earthquakes 
 3.2 External Forces 
 3.2.1 Weathering 
 3.2.2 Mass Wasting 
 3.2.2 Erosion 
 3.3 Mega Relief 
 3.3.1 Geosynclines 
 3.3.2 Types of Mountains 
 3.3.3 Plateaus 
 3.4 Landforms 
4.UNIT-4: THE DOMAIN OFAIR ON THE EARTH83
 4.1 Atmosphere 
 4.1.1 Composition of Atmosphere 
 4.1.2 Structure of Atmosphere 
 4.2 Insolation 
 4.2.1Factors Influencing Insolation 
 4.2.2 Heating and cooling of the Atmosphere 
 4.2.3 Heat Budget 
 4.2.4 Temperature Zones 
 4.2.5Distribution of Temperature 
 4.3Pressure And Wind 
 4.3.1 Atmospheric Pressure 
 4.3.2 Pressure Belts 
 4.3.3 Pressure and Winds 
 4.3.4 Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) 
 4.3.5Trade Winds 
 4.3.6Local Winds 
 4.4Moisture in AtmosphereAND TEMPERATE CYCLONES 
 4.4.1Air Mass 
 4.4.2Frontogenesis and Frontolysis 
 4.4.3Cyclones and Anti- cyclones 
 4.4.4Rainfall 
 4.4.5monsoon 
 4.5Classification of Climate 
5.UNIT-5: THE DOMAIN OF WATER ON THE EARTH132
 5.1 Ocean Basins 
 5.2The Relief of the Ocean Basins 
 5.3Properties of Ocean Waters 
 5.4Movements of Ocean Waters 
 5.5Currents of the Atlantic Ocean 
 5.6Currents of the Pacific Ocean 
 5.7Currents of the Indian Ocean 
 5.8 Effects of Ocean Currents 
 5.9 Importance of Ocean for Humans 
6.UNIT-6: THE DOMAIN OF LIFE ON THE EARTH159
 6.1Introduction 
 6.1.1Elements of Biosphere 
 6.2Ecosystem 
 6.3Biomes 
 6.4Eco zones (Realms) 
 6.4.1Types of Ecozones 
 6.4.2Major Biomes and Ecozones of the World 
 6.5Soil Basics 
 6.5.1Origin and types of soils 
 6.5.2Complex Nature of Soil 
 6.5.3Understanding Soil pH 
 6.5.4Soil Air 
 6.5.5Soil fertility 
 6.5.6Soil horizons 
 6.5.7Soil Taxonomy 

Get a Copy Now!

Book priceRs.95 (Excluding Courier Charge)
Demand Draft (or) Cash infavour ofSMART LEADERS IAS
Net TransactionHDFC Bank, 2nd Avenue, Chennai-40
IFSC CodeHDFC0001225
Account. No.50200008530660
Contact No.044-43525468, 7200010122, 9176787980.