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Dear Aspirants,

Our Greetings to you all. This book “Geography (UPSC-Mains)” is prepared in keeping with the changing dynamics of UPSC preparation. In this book all relevant topics have been covered as per the New UPSC syllabus. Diagrams, maps, Tabulations have been added for the convenience of the students. The aspirants are advised to read this book using the aid of the Atlas, for better understanding

The aspirants can also read our basic books, “The Principles and Concepts of Geography” and “Indian Geography” for understanding the Fundamentals of Geography. We welcome your valuable suggestions for our updation. Please, bring to our notice any correction and error in this book.

We once again wish you all, for your success and happiness in your life.



  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geograpical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water- bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, e-technology in the aid of farmers.

Table Of Content

Unit noIndexPage No
 1.1. Fish9
 1.2. Coral11
 1.3. Forest and Lumbering15
 1.4. Animal Rearing and Diary Industry18
 2.1. Coal21
 2.1.1.Distribution of Coal in India24
 2.1.2.Problems in Indian Coal Mining29
 2.1.3.Production and Distribution of Coal around the World32
 2.2. Iron Ore38
 2.2.1.Production and Distribution of Iron Ore in India38
 2.2.2.Production and Distribution of Iron Ore around the World42
 2.3. Petroleum47
 2.3.1.Major Oilfields Found in India50
 2.3.2.Oilfields in North-East India50
 2.3.3.On-Shore Oil Fields of Western India51
 2.3.4.Western Coast Off-Shore Oilfields52
 2.3.5.Downstream and Refining54
 2.3.6.Oil Reserves of the World59
 2.3.7.West Asia or Middle East Region60
 2.3.8.American Region61
 2.3.9.Russian Region62
 2.3.10.The Eastern and South Asian Region64
 2.4. Natural Gas66
 2.4.1.Exploration and Production67
 2.4.2.Gas Transmission Network in India69
 2.4.3.Important Pipelines70
 2.4.4.Other Pipeline Project across the Border72
 2.4.5.Natural Gas Distribution around the World73
 2.5. Shale Gas75
 2.6. Coal Bed Methane77
 2.7. Uranium78
 2.8. Solar Energy82
 2.8.1.Advantages of Solar Energ84
 2.8.3.Challenges associated with Solar Energy85
 2.8.4.Potential Areas of Solar Energy in India86
 2.8.5.Generation of Solar Energy87
 2.9. Wind Energy87
 2.9.1.Why Wind Energy88
 2.9.2.Main Advantages of Power Generation fromWind Energy89
 2.9.4.WEGInstallation Details World - Country Wise90
 2.9.5.Wind Power Installed Capacity (Mw) in India91
 2.9.6.India’s Largest Wind Power Production Facilities91
 2.10.Geothermal Energy93
 2.11.Ocean Energy97
 2.12.Biomass Energy97
 2.13.Rare Earth Minerals98
 3.1 Factors Influencing the Location of Industries102
 3.2 Cotton Industry / Textile103
 3.2.1Cotton Textile Industry in India109
 3.2.2 Problems of Cotton Textile Industry111
 3.3 Jute Industry111
 3.3.1Jute Textiles Industry in India113
 3.3.2 Problems of Indian Jute Industry114
 3.4 Silk Industries119
 3.5 Woolen Industries120
 3.6 Paper Industries123
 3.6.1 Growth And Distribution of Paper Industry in India122
 3.6.2Problems and Prospects129
 3.6.3Production and Distribution of Wood Pulp aroundthe World132
 3.7 Iron and Steel Industries134
 3.7.1 Tata Iron and Steel Company (Tisco)136
 3.7.2 Indian Iron and Steel Company (Iisco)136
 3.7.3 The Visweswarya Iron and Steel Ltd137
 3.7.4 Bhilai137
 3.7.5 Problems of Indian Iron and Steel Industry137
 3.8 Aluminium Smelting137
 3.9 Automobile138
 3.10 Drugs and Pharmaceuticals144
 3.11 Petrochemical Industries148
 3.12 Fertilizer Industries152
 4.1 Information Technology (IT AND ITES)154
 4.2 Knowledge Based Industries (KPO)157
 4.3 Tourism159
 4.4 Medical Tourism/Health Care Services161
 5.1 Rice Crop163
 5.1.1 Conditions of Growth163
 5.1.2 Distribution163
 5.2 Wheat Crops165
 5.2.1 Conditions of Growth165
 5.2.2 Distribution165
 5.3 Maize Crop166
 5.4 Bajra167
 5.4.1 Conditions of Growth167
 5.4.2 Production and Distribution167
 5.5 Pulses167
 5.6 Jower (Sorghum)168
 5.7 Cotton Cultivation168
 5.7.1 Conditions of Growth169
 5.7.2 Distribution171
 5.7.3 Production and Distribution of Cotton aroundthe World174
 5.8 Jute Cultivation177
 5.8.1 Conditions of Growth:177
 5.8.2 Distribution178
 5.8.3 Production and Distribution of Jute around the World179
 5.9 Sugarcane Cultivation180
 5.9.1 Conditions of Growth180
 5.9.2 Distribution182
 5.9.3 Difference between the Sugar Industry of Northern and Peninsular India184
 5.9.4 Problems of Sugar Industry185
 5.9.5 Sugarcane Production across the World186
 5.10 Groundnut Cultivation188
 5.11 Oilseeds Cultivation189
 5.12 Tobacco Cultivation188
 5.13 Horticulture189
 5.14 Rubber Plantation194
 5.14.1 Conditions Of Growth:194
 5.14.2 Production and Distribution194
 5.14.3 Production and Distribution of Natural Rubber throughout the World195
 5.15 Tea Plantation197
 5.15.1 Conditions of Growth197
 5.15.2 Distribution198
 5.15.3 Tea Plantation - World201
 5.16 Coffee Plantation203
 5.16.1 Conditions of Growth205
 5.16.2 Production and Distribution205
 5.16.3 Coffee Production around the World207
 5.17 Coconut211
 5.17.1 Area and Production of Coconut212
 5.17.2 Strength of Indian Coconut Industry212
 6.1 Mono-Cropping214
 6.2 Double Cropping216
 6.3 Multiple Cropping216
 6.4 Mixed Cropping217
 6.5 Difference between Mixed Cropping and Inter Cropping217
 6.6 Intercropping219
 6.7 Relay Cropping219
 6.9 Mixed Farming221
 6.10 Organic Farming222
 6.11 Vermicompos224
 6.12 Biofertilizer224
 6.13 Protected Agriculture/Farming (Plastic Culture)226
 6.14 Permaculture226
 6.15 Integrated Farming System (Ifs)227
 6.16 Sustainable Agriculture227
 6.17 Difference Between Sustainable and Modern Agriculture230
 6.18 Farming System230
 6.19 Rain Fed Farming230
 6.20 Irrigated Farming232
 7.1 Manual Irrigation232
 7.2 Surface Irrigation234
 7.2.1 Furrow Irrigation234
 7.2.2 Border Strip235
 7.2.3 Basin Irrigation236
 7.2.4 Ditch Irrigation238
 7.3 Terrace238
 7.3.1 Sprinkler240
 7.3.2 Drip Irrigation241
 7.3.3 Center Pivot244
 7.4 Subsurface Irrigation247
 7.5 Fertigation249
 8.1 Tank Irrigation252
 8.2 Well and Tube Well254
 8.3 Canal Irrigation256
 8.4 Multipurpose River Valley262
 9.1 aAQUA270
 9.2 eArik270
 9.3 DhanICT271
 9.4 ICRISAT271
 9.5 yPARD272
 10.2 Tsunami277
 10.4 Flood282
 10.5 Landslide/Avalanche285
 10.6 Soil Erosion292
 10.7 Desertification298
 10.8 Volcanic Activity300
 10.9 Cyclone306
 11.1 Effect on Water Bodies and Ice Caps316
 11.2 Effect on Fauna317
 11.3 Effect on Forest Vegetation318
 11.4 Effect on Agriculture319
 11.5 Effect on Human273