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Preface to the
Third Edition
I am pleased to place before the readers a thoroughly revised, enlarged and updated edition of this
widely read book Sociology by Smart Leaders IAS.
In 2011 and 2013, the UPSC changed the pattern and syllabus of the preliminary and main examinations,
respectively. In both the changes, the scope of Sociology has been considerably increased.
Hence, this new edition of the book is more relevant now and is aimed to meet the expanded needs of
the aspirants. In the course of revision and updating of this edition of the book, the various new developments
related to the topic like Politics and Society, Religion and Society and System of Kindship have been taken
into account.
This book also contains UPSC Sociology (optional) previous years question papers till 2017.
I firmly believe that this is now a very comprehensive and updated manual. It is a matter of immense
satisfaction that the previous three editions of this book have received an overwhelming response from
readers. I am confident that readers would continue to repose their faith in this edition as well.
Constructive comments and concrete suggestions to further improve the book are welcome and shall be
gratefully acknowledged.
S. SIVARAJAVEL
He is the maker of All India Sociology Toppers consecutively for six years from 2011-2016.
Those mentored by him are
ALL INDIA SOCIOLOGY TOPPERS
 
2016 Ms.S.Anu 308/500
Mr. Ankit Asokan 303/500
2015 Dr.R. Vaithinathan 262/500
Ms.Sharanya Ari 256/500
2014 Mr. Atul Kulkarni IPS 286/500
Mr.G.Subramaniyan IRS 272/500
2013 Mr.S.Selvanagarathinam IPS 240/500
2012 Mr.R.Baskaran IPS 197/300
2011 Mr.T.Ramkumar IFS 198/300
S.NOINDEXPAGE NO
 Preface to Third Editionv
 Acknowledgementvii
 Simplifying Sociology ix
6WORKS AND ECONOMIC LIFE 
 The Social Organization of work6.3
 Consequences of Work for Individuals6.6
 Consequences of Work for Society6.6
 Social Stratification6.8
 The Orizing Work6.8
 Karl Marx on Alienation and Exploitation6.8
 Emile Durkheim on Social Disorganization and Its Resolution6.9
 Max Weber on Bureaucratic Rationality6.10
 Socio-Technical and Interactionist Theories6.10
 A History of Work6.11
 Hunting and Gathering Societies6.11
 Early Agricultural Societies6.14
 Imperial Societies6.16
 Slave Labor in the Roman Mines6.16
 Slave and Free Labor6.17
 Feudal Society6.18
 Economic Expansion and the End of Feudal Society6.21
 Merchant Capitalism6.21
 Sweatshops-Home Work in Early Capitalism6.23
 The Industrial Revolution6.24
 Complaint by Lowell Factory Women, 18456.29
 Monopoly Capitalism6.31
 Postindustrial Society6.34
 Work and Leisure6.38
 The Feminization and Informalization of Labour6.48
 Women’s Employment in OECD Countries6.42
 Stratified Markets in South6.43
 Work and Leisure6.47
 Electronics Assembly in Malaysia6.48
 UPSC Previous Years Questions6.50
7POLITICAL AND SOCIETY 
 Sociological Theories of Power7.3
 • Weber7.4
 • Radical View7.5
 Functionalist7.8
 • Parsons7.8
 Pluralist7.10
 Elite Theory7.22
 Marxist Perspective7.32
 • Engles7.32
 • Ralph Miliband7.35
 • Nicos Poulantzas7.36
 Neo-Marxist Perspective7.41
 Political Parties7.44
 Pressure Group7.48
 Civil Society7.58
 Citizenship7.62
 • Globalization and Citizenship7.66
 • New Citizenship7.69
 Indicators of Power7.78
 Nation, State, and Nationalism7.82
 Globalization and the Power of the Nation-State7.91
 • Globalization and Transnational Corporations7.94
 • Globalization, Power, and Politics7.96
 Social Movements7.98
 New Social Movements7.107
 Regionalism7.116
 Threats to Democracy7.120
 UPSC Previous Years Questions7.126
8RELIGION AND SOCIETY 
 Sociological Theories of Religion8.3
 Functionalist8.5
 • Durkheim8.5
 • Malinowski8.7
 • Parsons8.9
 Marxist8.11
 Bryan Turner8.16
 Feminist8.17
 Rational Choice Theory8.22
 • Stark and Brain Bridge8.25
 Religion and Social Change8.28
 • Weber8.29
 Religious Organisation8.40
 • Church8.40
 • Denomination8.43
 • Sect8.44
 • Cults8.46
 Reasons For Growth of Sect, Cult and New Religious Movements8.53
 Secularisation Thesis8.63
 Secularism in India8.73
 Religion and Globalisation8.73
 Religious Revivalism8.81
 Religious Violence8.83
 The Clash of Civilisation8.86
 Animism8.102
 Monoism and Pluralism8.109
 UPSC Previous Years Questions8.118
9SYSTEMS OF KINSHIP 
 Family And House Hold : Introduction9.3
 Universality Of Family9.4
 Functionalist9.9
 • Murdock9.9
 • Parsons9.10
 Marxist9.12
 Feminist9.14
 • Marxist Feminist9.15
 • Radical Feminist9.17
 • Liberal Feminist9.24
 The Family – Industrialisation And Modernisation9.32
 Family Diversity9.38
 Patriarchy And Sexual Division Of Labour9.48
 Law and Gender Inequality9.52
 Kinship and Descent9.56
 Marital Breakdown9.61
 UPSC Previous Years Questions9.78
10SOCIAL CHANGE IN MODERN SOCIETY 
 Sociological Theories of Social Change10.3
 Development and Dependency10.8
 Education and Social Change10.13
 The Impact of Technology on Social Change: A Sociological Perspective10.16
 The Ethos of Science10.20
 Sociology of Ideology10.23
 Social Media and Social Change10.30
 Agents of Social Change10.32
 UPSC Previous Years Questions10.35