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                  I am pleased to place before the readers a thoroughly revised, enlarged and updated edition of this

widely read book Sociology by Smart Leaders IAS.
In 2011 and 2013, the UPSC changed the pattern and syllabus of the preliminary and main examinations,
respectively. In both the changes, the scope of Sociology has been considerably increased.
Hence, this new edition of the book is more relevant now and is aimed to meet the expanded needs of
the aspirants. In the course of revision and updating of this edition of the book, the various new developments
related to the topics like common sense, positivism, poverty and social exclusion have been added. This book
also contains UPSC Sociology (optional) previous years question papers till 2017.
I firmly believe that this is now a very comprehensive and updated manual. It is a matter of immense
satisfaction that the previous three editions of this book have received an overwhelming response from
readers. I am confident that readers would continue to repose their faith in this edition as well.
Constructive comments and concrete suggestions to further improve the book are welcome and shall be
gratefully acknowledged.


2016    –     Ms. S.Anu IAS (308/500) AIR-42

2015    –     Ms. Sharanya Ari IAS (256/500) AIR-7

2015    –     Dr. R.Vaithinathan IAS (262/500) AIR-37

2014    –     Mr.V.Atul Kulkarni IPS (286/500)

2013    –     Mr.SELVANAGARATHINAM IPS (240/500)

2012    –     Mr.BASKARAN IPS (197/300)

2011    –     Mr. RAMKUMAR IFS (198/300)

SOCIOLOGY Volume - 1 (Paper - I)

 Volume - I (Paper - 1) 
        Preface to Third Edition                               v
        Preface to First Edition   vii
        Acknowledgement                                   ix
        Letter from the Desk                                                                                        xi
        Simplifying Sociologyxiii
1Sociology –the discipline1.3-1.24
 1.1. Emergence of Sociology1.3
        1.1.A- Enlightment Movement and Age Of Reasons
                       (17th and 18th CEN)
        1.1.B- World Revolutions and Rise of Sociology1.6
        1.1.C- Modernity and the Origin of Sociology1.7
 1.2. The Relationship of Sociology with other Social Sciences1.8
       1.2.A- Sociology and Political Science1.9
       1.2.B- Sociology and History1.11
       1.2.C- Sociology and Economic1.12
       1.2.D- Sociology and Psychology1.14
       1.2.E- Sociology and Anthropology1.15
       1.2.F- Sociology and Biology1.17
       1.2.G- Sociology and Philosophy1.17
 1.3. Sociology and Common Sense1.22
2Sociology and Science2.3-2.46
 2.1. Science, Scientific Methods and Critiques2.3
 2.2. Positivism2.11
 2.3. Non Positivist Methodology2.24
        2.3.A- Symbolic Interactionism2.31
        2.3.B- Phenomenology2.37
        2.3.C- Ethnomethodology2.39
        2.3.D- Post Modern Approach2.42
        2.4. Fact, Value and Objectivity2.43
3Research methods and analysis3.3-3.27
 3.1. Research Methods3.3
 3.2. The Mass Media and Content Analysis3.4
 3.3. Sampling3.6
 3.4. Case Studies and Life Histories3.10
 3.5. Observation and Participant Observation3.19
 3.6. Validity and Reliability3.22
 3.7. Variable3.24
 3.8. Hypotheses3.25
4Sociology Thinkers4.3-4.122
 4.1. Emile Durkheim (1818-1883)4.3
        4.1.A- Durkheim’s Materialism4.6
        4.1.B- Suicide4.9
        4.1.C- Social Division of Labour4.15
        4.1.D- Religion4.22
  4.2. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)4.31
        4.2.A- Historical Materialism4.31
        4.2.B- Class and Class Conflict4.38
        4.2.C- Alienation4.47
 4.3. Max Weber (1864 - 1920)4.53
        4.3.A- Social Action4.55
        4.3.B- Ideal Type4.56
        4.3.C- Bureaucracy4.61
        4.3.D- Protestant Ethics and Spirit of Capitalism4.67
 4.4. Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)4.76
        4.4.A- Perspective4.76
        4.4.B- Parson’s Theory of Social Action4.78
        4.4.C- Pattern Variable4.82
        4.4.D- Structure Functional Analysis4.84
        4.4.E- Social System4.86
        4.4.F- Parsons on Social Change4.89
 4.5. Robert K. Merton (1910-2003)4.95
        4.5.A- Paradigm for Functional Analysis4.97
        4.5.B- Manifest and Latent Functions4.100
        4.5.C- Reference Group Theory4.101
        4.5.D- Conformity and Deviance4.103
        4.5.E- Social Structure and Anomie4.106
 4.6. George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)4.116
        4.6.A- Mind4.118
        4.6.B- Self4.119
        4.6.C- Critical Evaluation of G.H.Mead4.122
5Stratification and Mobility5.3-5.88
 5.1. Social Inequality and Social Stratification5.3
 5.2. Theories of Social Stratification5.6
 5.3. Melvin M. Tumin – a Critique of David and Moore5.10
 5.4. Marxist Perspective5.12
 5.5. Weberian Perspective5.18
5.6. Comparison of Marxian and Weberian
Theories of Social Stratification
 5.7. Equality and Inequality5.23
 5.8. Poverty and Exclusion5.26
 5.9. Social Exclusion5.29
        5.9.A Social Exclusion: Statistics and Policies5.33
 5.10. ‘Race’, Ethinicity and Nationality5.56
        5.10.A-Robert E.Park ‘Race’ Relations and Migration5.67
 5.11. Gender inequality5.69
 5.12. Gender as a Form of Stratification5.77
 5.13. Social Mobility5.81
 5.14. Open Societies and Closed Societies – Debate5.84
        Appendix - IAI.1-AI.8
        Appendix - IIAII.1-AII.9